Valerie completed her Ph.D. in Philosophy from Duke University. Her research concerns ethical and political issues related to social sorting: the preferences and structures that segregate people into social groups, especially those defined by race and class. Her dissertation analyzes the tension between freedom of association and the democratic ideal of equal opportunity. Her current work extends this line of research, focusing on issues of justice brought up by different scales of human movement. Specifically, Valerie is exploring the topic of domestic migration , otherwise known as “residential mobility,” and its relationship to both neighborhood-level segregation and international immigration.